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Impact des produits de traitement du bois sur les amphipodes Gammarus pulex (L.) et Gammarus fossarum (K.) : approches chimiques, hydro-écologique et écotoxicologique

Abstract : In order to protect them from attacks by fungi and beetles, softwood lumber is treated with fungicides and / or insecticides in one or more stages of processing. The latter are most frequently cypermethrin and deltarneethrin (insecticides of the pyrethroid family of synthesis), 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC, fungicide / bactericide belonging to the carbamate family), as well as the propiconazole and tebuconazole (fungicides of the triazole class). However, for historical reasons, softwood sawmills are often located at the head of the basin, along small particularly vulnerable streams. The present work aims to contribute to a better understanding of the disturbances caused by these wood treatment facilities on the surrounding aquatic environments, in particular vis-à-vis the populations of Gammarus pulex and Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipode). In this perspective, three complementary approaches have been developed. The chemical approach has qualified certain processes related to the adsorption of an active ingredient frequently used in the treatment of wood, propiconazole, on a standard material, activated carbon. This approach has also been aimed at developing a method for determining the pesticides studied in the sedimentary matrix. The detection limits reached are between 0.3 and 3.3 [micron] g.Kg-1. This method was used. successfully characterize the level of sediment contamination of an aquatic system located near a wood treatment area. The recurring presence of wood preservatives has been observed for several kilometers downstream of the treatment facilities. In addition, adult densities have been reduced at the near downstream, while juvenile densities are at a greater distance. The ecotoxicological approach reported on the susceptibility of both species to some of the most commonly used active ingredients in wood treatment. The lethality of these mixed substances for G. pulex is enhanced by a synergy operating at certain ratios and by the presence of adjuvants in commercial treatment solutions. In addition, variations in susceptibility of the populations were observed according to their geographical origin and the stage of development considered, the juveniles being more sensitive than the adults. This study provides a better understanding of the responses of populations of G. pulex and G. fossarum to disturbances caused by wood treatment areas. The vulnerability of these organisms is discussed, particularly in environments contaminated by concentrations of wood treatment products close to the detection limits of the developed assay method. The use of these taxa for bioindicative purposes, particularly in relation to other macrobenthic taxa, is also discussed, as are the prospects for the development of this work.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02273297, version 1

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Olivier Adam. Impact des produits de traitement du bois sur les amphipodes Gammarus pulex (L.) et Gammarus fossarum (K.) : approches chimiques, hydro-écologique et écotoxicologique. Ecotoxicologie. Université de Franche-Comté (UFC), 2008. Français. ⟨tel-02273297⟩

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