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La nutrition en médecine : approche épistémologique, problèmes ethiques et cas cliniques

Abstract : Medical advances now allow to feed all sick people by artificial nutrition when they cannot feed themselves. However, malnutrition is still highly prevalent. Is it possible to make nutrition an ethical subject so that it be considered as real medical care? To respond to this, an epistemological approach shows that nutrition is an autonomous science that has its origins in Antiquity. It differs from Clinical Nutrition, a discipline born in the twentieth century and uses artificial nutrition techniques having the status of a drug. Ethically, this poses actual difficulties when artificial nutrition applies to particular clinical situations. Indeed, feeding patients becomes a form of care but also of treatment. This leads us to question the values of care and envision universalizable standards with a true legitimacy in the medical field. In this context, we have identified a double vulnerability of malnourished patients, characterized by the otherness of the malnourished body, but also a vulnerability induced by the lack of diagnosis and training of care givers in nutrition. To meet these issues, it becomes necessary to conceive of just institutions, that by health policy, integrate nutrition as a care and provide medical training adapted to these challenges.
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Diana Cardenas. La nutrition en médecine : approche épistémologique, problèmes ethiques et cas cliniques. Philosophie. Université de Franche-Comté, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BESA1012⟩. ⟨tel-01452596⟩

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