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Urban mobility and the spatial distribution of economic activities in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

Abstract : In developing countries such as Brazil, the economic growth is gradually improving the population's standard of living, resulting in major impacts on urban mobility, particularly with regard to motor vehicle access. Between 2001 and 2012, the total growth of the car fleet in Brazil was around 3.5 million (Rodrigues, 2013), with 5.4% of this growth only in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro. Presently, the city is experiencing severe congestion episodes (Beyer, 2012), due to saturation of the main roads, and a fragmented and inefficient public transport system. For a country in economic development in the 21st century, it is very important to plan and monitor the evolution of urban mobility in order to make it efficient to its users and in accordance with the goals of sustainable development. In this context, land use transport interaction (LUTI) models can be important tools in understanding how the transport systems affect land occupation, which may explain the spatial distribution of economic activities and the traffic they generate in the territory. Since 2006, the French research laboratory ThéMA has been developing one of these models, an agent based LUTI simulation platform called MobiSim, dedicated to understand the relationship between urban sprawl and transport networks. One of its applications is taking place in Rio de Janeiro, and consists in the simulation of possible evolution scenarios of the urban growth and the transport system in its Metropolitan Area until 2050. This paper will present the first phase of the project: a diagnosis of the urban mobility and the spatial distribution of economic activities in Rio de Janeiro. We aim to jointly analyze three important variables of urban mobility in the region: the access to transport, through the rate of motorization and the availability of public transportation; the location (concentration or dispersion) of these activities; and the socio-spatial segregation, strongly present in the city. By modelling and analyzing the spatial distribution of households and economic activities, along with the transport lines, we intend to better understand the mobility generator zones and the areas of precarious accessibility. For this diagnosis, over 4 million households and 380,000 economic activities were georeferenced from the National Registry of Addresses of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), allowing the analysis of the land use in a very detailed scale, something unprecedented in Brazil. It is expected a direct link between areas of precarious accessibility and the municipalities that presented the greatest increase in motorization in the past years, and a strong concentration of the mobility generators especially formal employments in the historical center and richest parts of Rio de Janeiro. In a city marked by strong socio-spatial segregation like Rio (Silva, 2012), the lack of access to transport can be an important form of social exclusion (Lucas, 2012). Therefore, we expect this project to be an important scientific support for the local urban transportation actors, indirectly contributing to reducing vulnerability caused by uncontrolled urbanization and to a more sustainable development of urban mobility in the region.
Keywords : urban mobility
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Conference papers
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https://hal-univ-fcomte.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01744913
Contributor : Théoriser Et Modéliser Pour Aménager (umr 6049) Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, March 27, 2018 - 5:21:54 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 3:41:55 AM

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  • HAL Id : hal-01744913, version 1

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Larissa Lopes, Benjamin Motte-Baumvol, Thomas Thévenin. Urban mobility and the spatial distribution of economic activities in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The European Colloquium on Theoretical and Quantitative Geography (ECTQG), University of Leeds, Sep 2017, York, United Kingdom. ⟨hal-01744913⟩

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